Titration – Types, Examples, Procedure

To begin with, titration is a fundamental aspect of chemistry. In addition, there are four main forms of titration. Physical chemistry laboratory experiments require it.

Titration is a method of determining the concentration of an unknown solution by using a solution of known concentration. We will definitely describe the many forms of titration, examples, and experimentation methodologies in this chapter.


Titrations come in a variety of forms.

Understanding Titration and Titration Types

First and foremost, titration is a laboratory operation. Furthermore, in order to determine the concentration of an unknown solution, this approach employs the usage of a known concentration solution.

Furthermore, this is performed by placing one of the solutions in a flask and the other solution in a burette. The stopcock on the burette also allows one to gradually add one solution to the other until the reaction reaches an endpoint, or the point at which the reaction is complete.


The titrant, or known solution, is typically added from a burette to a known quantity of analyte, or unknown solution, until the reaction is complete. Knowing the volume of titrant added now allows for the determination of the unknown concentration. In most cases, an indication is used to signify the conclusion of a reaction.

Titration of Acid-Base

Among the several forms of titration, this one is unquestionably the most essential. Acidimetry is the measurement of acid strength using a standard solution of the base. Alkalimetry, on the other hand, is a method of determining the strength of a base using a standard acid solution.

Both titrations are likely to have a role in alkali neutralization. Furthermore, one of the solutions in an acid-base titration is an acid, while the other is a base. Furthermore, one is placed in a flask, while the other is placed in a burette and dripped into the flask until the titration reaches its endpoint.





Alternatively, H+ + A– + B+ + OH– B+ + A– + H2O


Alternatively, H+ + OH– H2O

The neutralizing reaction between a base or an acidic and the analyte is the basis for this titration. A reagent is also combined with the sample solution until it achieves the desired pH level in this kind. This form of titration is mostly based on a pH meter or a track change in pH.

Titrations of Redox

This titration may be described as an oxidation-reduction process. The chemical reaction in this titration involves a transfer of electrons between reacting ions in aqueous solutions. One solution is a reducing agent, while the other is an oxidizing agent in a redox titration.



The following are some common instances of titrations:

(a) Titrations of Permanganate:

The oxidizing agent potassium permanganate is used for. It is kept in good working order with the use of dilute sulfuric acid.

K2SO4 + 2MnSO4 + 3H2 + 5O = 2KMnO4 + 3H2SO4

Alternatively, MnO4– + 8H + 5e Mn2++ 4H2O

Before the endpoint, this solution is colorless. Furthermore, potassium permanganate is used to calculate oxalic acid, ferrous salts, hydrogen peroxide, oxalates, and a variety of other substances.

Titrations of dichromate:

In an acidic media, potassium dichromate is undoubtedly used as an oxidizing agent. Furthermore, the acidic medium is maintained with the application of dilute sulphuric acid.

K2Cr2O7 + 4H2SO4 → K2Cr2(SO4) + 4H2O + 3[O]

Or Cr2O27- + 14H + 6e → 2 Cr3+ + 7H2O

(c) Titrations by Iodometry and Titrations by Iodometry:

Furthermore, during these titrations, free iodine is reduced to iodide ions and iodide ions are oxidized to free iodine.

l2 + 2e = 2l–…………… (reduction)

2l– + 2e 2e…………… (oxidation)

Titrations of Precipitation

This titration is based on the precipitate production. In precipitation titration, two reacting chemicals are brought into contact.

When a solution of silver nitrate is added to a solution of ammonium thiocyanate or sodium chloride, for example. It reacts to generate a white silver thiocyanate or silver chloride precipitate.

AgNO3 + NaCl → AgCl + NaNO3


Titrations in Complexometry

The creation of an undissociated compound is the most important result of this titration. It’s also more than just titrations of precipitation.


Hg2+ + 2SCN– → Hg(SCN)2

Ag+ + 2CN– → [Ag(CN)2]–

EDTA, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, is a key reagent for forming metal complexes.

The method was followed. For the Titration Types

  • To begin, select the titrant.
  • After that, pick a titrate.
  • Choose the titrate’s normalcy.
  • Choose the volume of liquid to be pipetted out as well.
  • Select the indication as well.
  • Begin titrating.
  • The endpoint must be noted when the solution’s color changes.

Calculate the normalcy of the titrant based on the final reading using the following equation:

Finally, after determining normality, use the equation to determine the quantity of a particular ingredient in the entire solution:
EquivalentWeightxNormalityxVolume100 = Mass

You have a question that has been answered.

Q: After a titration, what unknown quantity may be calculated?

When performing titrations with an unknown, the purpose is to figure out what the unknown is. Calculating the unknown concentration and calculating the mass percentage of the unknown are both unknown numbers that may be calculated after a titration.

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Back to top button

Adblock Detected

Turn off adblocker to view this content